Resource HUB

CPLC collects and facilitates access to up-to-date information tailored for policy makers, business leaders and practitioners on current and emerging practices related to the design and implementation of carbon pricing initiatives, market trends, opportunities and trade-offs. 


This paper analyzes carbon pricing policies in fifteen regions (EU, Switzerland, Ireland, Norway, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and California in the U.S., British Columbia and Québec in Canada, Mexico, Chile, New Zealand, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, and pilot schemes in China) that have implemented an emissions trading scheme (ETS), a carbon tax or a hybrid of both. The paper synthesizes key findings and knowledge gaps on what is working, what isn’t and why when it comes to implementing carbon pricing policies. Institutional learning, administrative prudence, appropriate carbon revenue management, and stakeholder engagement are identified as key ingredients for a successful pricing regime.

This Executive Briefing discusses the progress being
made in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, challenges to achieving effective GHG emissions reduction, and the key role that financiers can play in both mitigating their own risks and helping the industry towards a more orderly, effective decarbonization.

In September 2017, I4CE updated its database on carbon pricing policies. This panorama presents key trends regarding the implementation of explicit carbon pricing policies at the regional and national level in 2017. A timeline, a world map, a detailed table and a graph provide comprehensive information on the jurisdictions that have implemented or plan to implement explicit carbon pricing policies, the type of instrument chosen, the sectors covered, the pricing levels and the use of revenues





Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage

What is the Impact of Carbon Pricing on Competitiveness?
Japanese, Spanish version (Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, 2016)

Carbon pricing, Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage: theory, evidence and policy design
(World Bank, 2015)

Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness: A Review of Empirical Findings
(OECD, 2015)

Carbon Pricing & Addressing Competitiveness
(IETA, 2015)

Environment and trade: Do stricter environmental policies hurt export competitiveness?
(OECD, 2016)

Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Environmental Policy Stringency on Productivity Growth
(OECD, 2014)

Use of Revenues

What are the Options for Using Carbon-Pricing Revenues
Japanese Spanish version (Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, 2016)

The Investment of RGGI Proceeds through 2014 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI, 2016)

Carbon pricing: how best to use the revenue?
(Grantham Institute, GGGI, 2015)

Two World Views on Carbon Revenues
(Resources for the Future, 2013) 

Carbon Fee and Dividend Explained  (Citizens Climate Lobby, 2016)

Better Growth Better Climate, 2016
(New Climate Economy, 2014)

How to Use Carbon Tax Revenues
(Tax Policy Center, 2016)

Choose Wisely: Options and Trade-Offs in Recycling Carbon Pricing Revenue 
(Canada Eco-Fiscal Commission)

British Columbia’s Revenue-Neutral Carbon Tax: A Review of the Latest “Grand Experiment"
(Nicholas Institute and University of Ottawa Institute of the Environment, 2015)  

Recycling carbon revenues: Transforming costs into opportunities
(I4CE, 2016) 

Carbon Pricing Revenues
(CMIA, 2015) 

Policy Alignment

How can Carbon Prices and Policies be effectively aligned? Spanish version (Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, 2016)

Climate and Carbon: Aligning prices and Policies
(OECD, 2013)

Aligning Policies for a Low-carbon Economy

The FASTER Principles for Successful Carbon Pricing: An approach based on initial experience
(OECD/World Bank Group, 2015)

Business &
Carbon Pricing

Putting a Price on Carbon: Integrating Climate Risk into Business Planning 2017 (CDP)

The Business of Pricing Carbon: How Companies are Pricing Carbon to Mitigate Risks and Prepare for a Low-Carbon Future (C2ES)

Impacts Of A Global Carbon Price On Consumption And Value Creation
Implications For Carbon Pricing Design (Generation Foundation, Ecofys, NTU, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency)

Valuation of Energy Costs in the Indian Context: A Survey Based Study of Select Indian Corporates (TERI)

A Win-Win Solution to Abate Aviation CO2 Emissions (Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, MIT, 2017)

Three notes on the management of climate-related risks by financial actors (I4CE, 2017)

Carbon Market Readiness Training Guide  (IETA, B-PMR, 2017)

Internal Carbon Pricing, A Growing Corporate Practice (English and French, EpE, I4CE, 2016)

Carbon Pricing: what the business sector needs to know to position itself (CEBDS and CDP, 2016)

Embedding a Carbon Price Into Business Strategy (CDP, 2016)

Executive Guide to Carbon Pricing Leadership
(UN Global Compact, WRI, 2015)

Shifting the carbon pricing debate: Emerging business attitudes fuel momentum for global climate action
(EY, 2015)

Putting a price on risk: Carbon pricing in the corporate world
(CDP, 2015)

Emerging Practices in Internal Carbon Pricing
(WBCSD, 2016)

Investing in a Time of Climate Change  
(Mercer, 2015)

Corporate Use of Carbon Prices: Commentary from Corporations, Investors and Thought Leaders 
(CDP, 2014)

Preparing for Carbon Pricing: Case Studies from Company Experience - Royal Dutch Shell, Rio Tinto, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
(Partnership for Market Readiness, 2015)

Climate Action and Profitability: CDP S&P 500 Climate Change Report 2014 
(CDP, 2014) 

Markets Matter: Greenhouse Gas Markets 2014 
(IETA, 2014)

Caring for Climate Business Leadership Criteria on Carbon Pricing
(UN Global Compact, 2014)




Linking carbon markets

Towards global carbon pricing: direct and indirect linking of carbon markets
(OECD, 2014)

Carbon Market Clubs and the New Paris Regime
(Climate Strategies, 2016) 

Towards a global price on carbon: Pathways for linking carbon pricing instruments
(Adelphi, 2015)

Networking Carbon Markets – Key Elements of the Process
(World Bank, 2016)

Toward a club of carbon markets
(EDF, 2015)

Creating a club of carbon markets: Implications of the trade system
(ICTSD, WEF, 2015)

Addressing Climate Change: A WTO Exception to Incorporate Climate Clubs
(ICTSD, WEF, 2015)

Lessons Learned from Linking Emissions Trading Systems: General Principles and Applications 
(World Bank, 2014)

Towards A Global Carbon Market Prospects for Linking the EU ETS to Other Carbon Markets
(Carbon Market Watch, 2015)

Linking Emissions Trading Schemes: Considerations and Recommendations for a Joint EU-Korean Carbon Market

Linking Emissions Trading System: A Summary of Current Research
(ICAP, 2015)

Options and Issues for Restricted Linking of Emissions Trading Systems
(ICAP, 2015)


Global Panorama of Carbon Prices in 2017 (I4CE)

Public Willingness To Pay for a U.S. Carbon Tax and Preferences for Spending the Revenue (Yale University)

China Carbon Market Watch 2017 (PMR)

Report of the High-Level Commission on Carbon Prices (CPLC)

Carbon Pricing Watch 2017 (World Bank and Ecofys)

ETS News from China,  Q1 2017 English, 2016 Q4 in Chinese ,PMR)

The Sustainable Infrastructure Imperative: Financing for Better Growth and Development. (The New Climate Economy , 2016)

Galvanising low-carbon innovation (The New Climate Economy , 2016)




State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2017

Reflecting the growing momentum for carbon pricing worldwide, the 2017 edition of the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing targets the wide audience of public and private stakeholders engaged in carbon pricing design and implementation. This report also provides critical input for negotiators involved in the implementation of the Paris Agreement, particularly for the meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP} 23 to be held in Bonn in November 2017. As in the previous editions, the report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world, including national and subnational initiatives. Furthermore, it gives an overview of current corporate carbon pricing initiatives. Another key focus of the report is on the importance of an integrated approach to climate finance and climate markets, together with domestic policies. The analysis shows how such an integrated approach can be used to mobilize the scale of low-carbon investments needed to achieve the below 2°C temperature target and outlines a transition scenario and the possible role of results-based climate financing to catalyze climate markets.

State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2016

State & Trends of Carbon Pricing 2016.JPG

Greater cooperation through carbon trading could reduce the cost of climate change mitigation by 32 percent by 2030. New modelling analysis undertaken for the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2016 report shows that increased international carbon trading could enable large-scale emissions reductions at much lower cost than at present, based on the carbon mitigation goals spelled out in countries’ national climate plans under the Paris Agreement - the Nationally Determined Contributions, or NDCs.  By the middle of the century, an international market has the potential to reduce global mitigation costs by more than 50 percent.  





Preparing shipping banks for climate change: How can internal carbon pricing help ship-financing banks in risk management? 

This Executive Briefing discusses the progress being made in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, challenges to achieving effective GHG emissions reduction, and the key role that financiers can play in both mitigating their own risks and helping the industry towards a more orderly, effective decarbonization.

Background Note: Carbon Pricing Readiness

As countries construct their 2030, 2040, and 2050 greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios, they have increasingly identified cost-efficient policies, including carbon pricing instruments, as essential elements of proposed climate action. Countries’ activities in this regard differ based on their unique circumstances, and range from improving “carbon pricing readiness”  to designing and piloting various carbon pricing instruments. This note provides updates on countries' activities.  

Background Note: Corporate Action for Putting a Price on Carbon

Companies in a diverse range of sectors see carbon pricing as the most efficient and cost-effective means of tackling the climate challenge. Many companies are voicing support for government action to put a price on carbon. Many also assign a price on carbon internally.

Background Note: ETS

An ETS is an explicit carbon pricing instrument that limits or caps the allowed amount of greenhouse gas emissions and lets market forces disclose the carbon price through emitters trading emissions allowances.

Emissions Trading 101 Library 
(IETA, 2015)